It is an unfortunate fact that many species of fish have been prosecuted to near total depletion. Fortunately, sustainability and stock recovery have risen significantly in importance to many fisheries managers in recent years. This is leading to the recovery of many fish stocks including the Baltic cod. However, these rebounding populations have to cope with ecosystems that have been significantly changed by humans in other ways. In the case of the Baltic cod, their prey, sprat and herring, have also been depleted. As a result, there is not enough forage fish to sustain the rising population of cod. This is leading to extensive malnutrition and cannibalism within the cod population. Scientists are now attempting to incorporate this new idea of relative species distributions into their management and recovery plans. Hopefully this case will raise awareness and provide helpful insights for other stock recovery efforts. It is important to realize that ecosystems are multidimensional and we can not expect to change only one thing at a time.