All posts by achampagne3

Better Global Ocean Management

The Great News:

New research has been presenting improved fishing that could potentially improve the health of wild fisheries.  Some say the global fish populations could even double by 2050.

 

A Thai fisherman catches freshwater white tilapia fish at a fish farm in Samut Prakarn province June 6, 2012. The price per kilo of white tilapia fish has decreased to almost half the price it was before historic floods hit Thailand last year. The country's exports unexpectedly fell in April from a year earlier as industry continued to feel the impact of the flooding but the Commerce Ministry expects a significant improvement in the second half of the year. REUTERS/Sukree Sukplang (THAILAND - Tags: BUSINESS COMMODITIES TPX IMAGES OF THE DAY)
A Thai fisherman catches freshwater white tilapia fish at a fish farm in Samut Prakarn province June 6, 2012. The price per kilo of white tilapia fish has decreased to almost half the price it was before historic floods hit Thailand last year. The country’s exports unexpectedly fell in April from a year earlier as industry continued to feel the impact of the flooding but the Commerce Ministry expects a significant improvement in the second half of the year. REUTERS/Sukree Sukplang (THAILAND – Tags: BUSINESS COMMODITIES TPX IMAGES OF THE DAY)

Quote:

“This research shows that we really can have our fish and eat them, too,” said lead author Christopher Costello, a professor of environmental and resource economics at UCSB’s Bren School of Environmental Science & Management. “We no longer need to see ocean fisheries as a series of trade-offs. In fact, we show that we can have more fish in the water, more food on the plate and more prosperous fishing communities — and it can happen relatively quickly.”

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This study was conducted by researchers in Santa Barbra, The University of Washington, and the Environmental Defense Fund.

They conducted multiple variables and equations to come up with 77% of the world’s fisheries biomass could double.

The researchers used a huge database of 4,713 fisheries representing 78 percent of the ocean’s catch.

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Quote:

“We’ve uncovered a really important insight: There is urgency and a tremendous upside in reforming thousands of small-scale, community fisheries around the world,” said co-author Ray Hilborn, a professor of marine biology and fisheries science at the University of Washington. “The research adds to the body of work showing that most of the world’s large fisheries are doing relatively well, but it emphasizes the critical need to rebuild local fisheries, most of which are in the developing world where millions depend on fisheries for food and their livelihoods.”

The researchers have concluding that reforms on sanctioned fishing rights are critical to provide benefits to increase fish populations and food production.

What would you do if you won the lottery? Portrait of a very happy young man in a rain of money; Shutterstock ID 148789697; PO: lottery-winner-money-stock-today-tease-160108; Client: TODAY Digital

What would you do if you won the lottery? Portrait of a very happy young man in a rain of money; Shutterstock ID 148789697; PO: lottery-winner-money-stock-today-tease-160108; Client: TODAY DigitalQuote:

Quote:

“We now have a clear roadmap for how to recover fisheries: Give fishermen secure fishing rights so they can control and protect their future,” said co-author Amanda Leland, senior vice president for oceans at the Environmental Defense Fund. “Countries from the U.S. to Belize to Namibia are leading a turnaround by implementing secure fishing rights and realizing benefits for people and the oceans.”

Since 2000, overfishing in U.S. federal waters has dropped by 70% also the number of species managed by fishing rights have increased four times the normal amount. In the past three years, fishing  jobs have increased by 31% and fishing revenues have grown by 44%.

Quote:

“Our research reveals a stark choice: Either manage fisheries sustainably and realize the tremendous potential of the world’s oceans, or allow the status quo to continue to draw down the natural capital of our oceans,” said Costello.

 

Citation:

University of California – Santa Barbara. “Better global ocean management.” ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 29 March 2016. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2016/03/160329132251.htm>.

Prey Scarcity and Competition Led to Extinction of Ancient Monster Shark

Information About a Humongous Shark:

Carcharocles megalodon, lived between 23 million and 2.6 million years ago, reaching body lengths of up to 18 meter.   Which makes it the largest shark in history. Now scientist have found that climate change was not the answer to the great shark’s extinction.   Researchers from University of Zurich have recently delivered a new finding about the ginormous deceased shark.

The researchers found 200 records from around the globe, to try an get a better image of why megladon became extinct.

 

In the end researchers found that lack of food resources and different evolving competitors made the great shark extinct.

 

Quote:

“We were not able to ascertain any direct link between the extinction of C. megalodon and the global fluctuations in temperatures during this time. Changing climatic conditions do not appear to have had any influence on the population density and range of the giant sharks,” explains Pimiento. Their numbers did not decline in colder periods, nor did they increase significantly in rising water temperatures.

Why Is It Important to Know About History:

It is important to consider the past because, it is important to create the future by learning about the past. Fisheries and fish corporations developed new technology to recreate the past and learn more about past species. Which help scientists develop a better future. In contrast the future   provides information to learn more about historical events in the past, when humans were not yet on this earth.

Citation:

University of Zurich. “Prey scarcity and competition led to extinction of ancient monster shark.” ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 31 March 2016. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2016/03/160331105841.htm>.

Lake Huron’s Chinook Salmon Fishery Unlikely to Recover Due to Ongoing Food Shortage

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Decline :

The devastation of this article is perhaps confusing to most people. The salmon are being left to starve because, of less herring-like alewife. The managers should have started from the bottom with rebuilding the lake trout, walleye, or lake herring. Lake Michigan is on the verge of alewife decline.

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Quote:

“These results serve as a reality check for those who continue to pressure the resource managers to stock Chinook salmon in Lake Huron,” said study co-author Sara Adlerstein-Gonzalez, a fishery scientist at U-M’s School of Natural Resources and Environment.

“The findings are also good news for native fish species and for the restoration of the entire Lake Huron ecosystem. Maybe we should celebrate the improvements in the native fish populations and try to adapt to this new situation.”

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Why:

Recreational salmon were introduced into the great lakes around 50 years ago to help control alewives. From then on they became the main prey for salmon. Great lakes fishery is now worth $4 million per year. The alewife population started declining in 2003. Between 2002 and 2003 the alewife population plunged 90 percent.

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No one really knows why the collapse happened, but some biologist believe that the collapse was from too much predation from salmon and lake trout. Some believe that is because of the lack of food and from zebra mussels. Then there is some biologist who believe that it was caused by both.

Quote: From Researchers  

“We are seeing all the same warning signs in lakes Michigan and Ontario,” Kao said. “We’re seeing decreasing nutrient loads, a decrease in soft-bodied, bottom-dwelling invertebrates due to the mussels, a decrease in rainbow smelt and, as a result, Chinook salmon feeding almost solely on alewives.”

Link to Water Decline at Lake Huron https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=G-KL01jBh3E

Citation:

University of Michigan. “Lake Huron’s Chinook salmon fishery unlikely to recover due to ongoing food shortage.” ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 14 March 2016. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2016/03/160314101718.htm>.

 

Halibut Stock Decline Forces Increased Management Measures for Southeat Alaska Charter Fleet

NOAA’s fishery services have came to  the conclusion that halibut stocks are getting significantly low.  Which made them  considered the IPHC’s ( International Pacific Halibut Commission) regulatory recommendations. The regulations for halibut caught by charter  anglers, is a maximum size of 37 inches.

Youtube: Bycatch

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GVGJtTw8A0c

IPHC believes that the number of stock is declining because,  a low number of fish are not  reaching a catchable size. The commissions also believe that halibut can further decline in population.

“The declining halibut stock is impacting both charter and commercial halibut fishers all along the west coast from Washington State to Alaska,” said Alaska Fisheries regional administrator Dr. James Balsiger. “NOAA’s Fisheries Service is committed to working cooperatively with our international partners in Canada to jointly manage this important stock for the long-term benefit of both our countries.”

NOAA is trying to help the population; I agree with Dr. Balsiger and  that it is important to work  coopertively on the issue. Although this is an older article, I  felt it was important  to help understand the  past lesson.  Also, I feel very strongly about Alaska’s natural resources.

Youtube: Over Fishing Top 5

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=K-EGb8UyvvU


 

Citation :

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. “Halibut stock decline forces increased management measures for southeast Alaska charter fleet.” ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 13 March 2011. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2011/03/110313130122.htm>

 

Shark Babies Remain Strong in Future Acidic Oceans

Dr. Jodie Rummer from James Cook University, whom has done many studies on coral reefs; concluded that sharks help maintain PH distributions. The risk of death for sharks in the ocean are very high in acidic conditions when the gills of the embryo aren’t fully developed.

“This is when the embryos may be most vulnerable. So, future projections are still not the best-case scenario for the sharks,” Dr. Rummer explained.

 

Epaulette shark eggs usually are incubated 3-4 months before they hatch. Researchers counted gill and tail movements of developing embryos and are monitored further by survival or growth. Sharks, rays, and skates are considered the most vulnerable of marine vertebrates.

Dr. Rummer says that recent studies from her group suggest adult epaulette sharks, after prolonged exposure to high carbon dioxide to simulate ocean acidification, are not affected physiologically in terms of metabolic performance. “Therefore, if these sharks are able to tolerate challenging conditions as adults, they must also be able to early in life, and maybe even more so!” she said.

Overall, this article is very interesting concerning sharks, skates, and rays. This article gives insight on the development of Elasmobrachs and how they can adapt in different environments.
Citation:
James Cook University. “Shark babies remain strong in future acidic oceans.” ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 8 March 2016. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2016/03/160308105629.htm>.

Fan O’ Fish Page (Northern Pike)

There is a lot of cool sport fishing videos of people trying to snag pike!

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0lNfv-YwBk8

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zCAt6Lg0zbI

I hand created my Facebook page with all the information handwritten.  It was a fun way to create a Facebook page with all the requirements.

Facebook (Creative) Page

Here are some colored pictures on Northern Pike!

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Here are links to read about Northern Pike

https://www.adfg.alaska.gov/index.cfm?adfg=invasivepike.main

https://americanexpedition.us/northern-pike-information-facts-photos-and-fishing-tips

https://wdfw.wa.gov/ais/esox_lucius/

References:

https://www.adfg.alaska.gov/index.cfm?adfg=northernpike.main

https://www.biokids.umich.edu/critters/Esox_lucius/

 

Restored Streams Take 25 Years or Longer to Recover!

https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2015/06/150630100659.htm

In northern Sweden during the 1850’s to 1950’s , streams were channelized to help move timber. Boulders were blasted or taken out of the streams. This means that the riparian zones were damaged. Riparian forests are valuable to the fish, because they supply habitat, store carbon, provide shading, and filter water.  

“Northern Sweden is a great study system for determining the results of restoration because of the long history of restoration and the lack of urbanization. Most stream restoration in other parts of the world did not get started until the 1990s. So we have a unique opportunity to study the long-term effects of stream restoration,” says Eliza Maher Hasselquist.

Most streams are typically monitored for five years after the riparian zone is restored. Eliza, the person doing research on riparian zones; count the number of plant species in the streams to count the timeline on how long it would take to be restored. They found that the plants may need to take longer to restore than they thought. It is estimated that the riparian zone may take 25 years or longer to be completely restored.

Eliza says, “The small number of studies of restored streams have often found inconclusive results after stream restoration and this may be because we are too impatient. These ecosystems took thousands of years to develop, and we expect them to return back to their pre-disturbance state in less than five years? We need to be more patient.”

Field picture of stream restored in 1987.
Credit: Eliza Maher Hasselquist

The main objective is to help the fish adapt to the restored surroundings. For that to happen you must leave nature to fix the riparian zones. Seeds are the main ingredient to help support riparian zones. Active seeding of native plants will help the fish, insects, and other creatures repopulate. Planting shrubs could also help jump start the recovery of the riparian zone.

“The Swedish government and the EU are spending millions of crowns every year on stream restoration. We should do everything we can to make sure that we get a good return on that investment. Finding simple ways of improving our methods for restoring streams is important for doing that,” says Eliza Maher Hasselquist.

Here is another link to learn more about Sweden and their restoration findings:

https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2015/11/151103090541.htm

Abmobäcken stream before and after demonstration restoration.
Credit: Daniel Jonsson

 

Journal Reference:

  1. Eliza Maher Hasselquist, Christer Nilsson, Joakim Hjältén, Dolly Jørgensen, Lovisa Lind, Lina E. Polvi. Time for recovery of riparian plants in restored northern Swedish streams: a chronosequence study. Ecological Applications, 2015; 25 (5): 1373 DOI: 10.1890/14-1102.1
Citation:
UmeÃ¥ universitet. “Restored streams take 25 years or longer to recover.” ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 30 June 2015. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2015/06/150630100659.htm>.